The Call, Column 75 – The Best Parts of Urban Farming

2 07 2017

(July 2, 2017)

The Urban Farmer

The Best Parts of Urban Farming

Ahh, summer! The garden is growing, the chickens are laying and loving the heat, and I’ve been spending a whole lot of time outside – both on the urban farm and off it. I’ve gotten a real, newfound enthusiasm for my homestead this year, in no small part because it’s actually off to a really good start, and poised for a productive season. Since I know we’re all busy, I wanted to take this week to quickly highlight a few of my absolute favorite things to grow and raise, and methods to use, to see if maybe you share my enthusiasm.

Raspberries. And blackberries. It was the ripening of my first summer raspberries a few days ago that really prompted this topic. I have been eating an ultra-strict version of the Paleo diet as an experiment over the past week, which temporarily excludes anything with any measurable about of sugar. But the sight of that first, ripe, plump raspberry on the plant on Thursday afternoon meant I had to make an exception – and I’m glad I did! The crop this year seems like it’ll be really great, so I’m excited for that.

So if I were talking to a new urban farmer, in probably every case I would recommend that they plant bramble fruits (raspberries and blackberries) before anything else…including any vegetables. Not only are they the easiest fruit to grow, but these plants require basically no care. And as I’ve taken to telling people recently, their productive capacity is limited pretty much only by the farmer’s ability to keep them from spreading.

They can be planted in areas with very little sunlight and still produce bountifully, and I’m not kidding when I say that a single cane planted this year, with basically no effort on your part, will be dozens of productive canes in two years’ time. And when it comes to nutritional bang for the buck, bramble fruits might be second only to leafy greens. They are incredibly high in fiber, such that the sugar in them probably won’t create any negative metabolic effects in anyone. Unlike many other fruits, they have a healthy balance both of glucose/fructose and of omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids. And as far as fruit goes, they are pretty dense in micronutrients. All of this, in a tasty, abundantly-growing package!

Mulch. I can’t quite express how much I love mulch, though I confess to not always use enough of it. Straw, leaves, grass clippings, mulched wood/bark…it doesn’t matter. With a few inches of mulch covering your garden’s soil, everything will grow better.

I’ve used more mulch (a combination of straw, a special shredded and heat-treated hay/straw mixture, and grass clippings) this year than ever before, and I’ve seen great improvements in soil health. Just the other day, I pulled back some of the mulch while planting, to find the soil, still damp, cool, and full of earthworms right up to the surface. This was three or four days after the last rainstorm, since when it had been 85°F and dry.

A thick layer of mulch keeps the soil moist and prevents water runoff and evaporation, encourages the growth of beneficial microorganisms and bugs, cools down plants’ roots which aids in growth, prevents most weeds, keeps certain plants (like tomatoes) safe from soil-borne diseases, and preserves soil nutrient from depletion (a big problem in raised bed gardens like mine); not to mention, I think it makes my garden look a lot more natural.

Companion planting. This is a practice that I’ve been doing almost as long as I’ve been gardening (9+ years?!), based heavily on an old masterpiece, Carrots Love Tomatoes by Louise Riotte.

The basic idea is that, certain combinations of plants are mutually beneficial when planted near each other, others are mutually harmful, and yet others are neutral, and in some cases, there are pairs where one sees benefit and the other sees harm by their proximity.

This is a very holistic, inexact science, but I’ve definitely found it useful in deciding how to lay out my garden each year. The harms and benefits between plants come in many shapes and forms, and are causes by many different facets of each plant. In some cases, one plant exudes a compound from its roots and harms or helps others. Other times, the scent of one plant deters some insect pest that would harm the other. And then, like in the case of potatoes and tomatoes (respectively), some plants are vectors for a plant disease that doesn’t harm them, but can harm a related plant if they are close by each other, or planted in the same soil in subsequent years.

The types of effects range from soil-borne chemical exchange, to resistance or attraction of pests or beneficial insects, to disease harboring or prevention, to even shading or windbreak capabilities. You should definitely read a little about this (either in Ms. Riotte’s book, or on the internet), even if you just plan to use it as the baseline from which you plan your garden layout.

Leafy greens. And specifically, certain well-adapted lettuces. As long as you start them right, these are incredibly easy to grow. And like brambles, they yield quite the nutrient-bang for the buck (other than iceberg, that is).

I always grow a lot of lettuce plants of many different varieties, both by direct seeding in the spring and by starting in 72-cell trays (which tends to work better in my case). I stick them between newly planted tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and even brassicas early in the season. These provide a little protection from the summer heat at first (#companionplanting), but by the time they’re big enough to block the sun, the lettuce is long since harvested.

Organic/sustainable lettuce is pretty pricey, which makes it even better to grow it in your garden. I happen to get lots of leafy greens (at a very good price, when you break it all down) in my CSA share from Blue Skys Farm, so between those and what I’m soon going to start harvesting from my garden, it’s a good thing I eat so much lettuce!

Chickens!!!!! I would be remiss to not mention these feathery little garbage disposals, that I promise would integrate really well into any urban farm. You can supplement their diet with food and garden scraps which they turn into eggs; their penchant for scratching means you don’t really ever have to till your garden or turn over your compost pile; they have no more favorite food than insect pests; their manure can be composted into valuable fertilizer; and they turn very little feed into a valuable protein source, something not otherwise available from an urban farm (legumes don’t count, because in basically every case, plant proteins are biologically-inferior to animal proteins).

Robust, interwoven, holistic, permaculture systems. I know, that was a lot of buzz-words that probably don’t mean much to the general population. I meant to do that, to cover as much ground as possible with this last “favorite thing” of mine.

What I mean by this, is that I really value truly sustainable agricultural systems where nature is artfully emulated, where human knowledge is used instead of toxic, artificial chemicals and large machines, in order to produce and maintain a complex, productive, resilient ecosystem that is capable of both benefiting the natural world and feeding human beings. Wow, that was a mouthful!

I try to do this with my urban farm, between my chickens, fruit plants, garden, and compost, and I think everyone should. The basic idea is to use the inedible outputs of one entity as the inputs to another entity (i.e. chicken manure into compost and then into soil fertility), which steps your urban farm closer to true sustainability and minimizes the streams of external inputs and wastes.

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call, Column 69 – Another Visit to Blue Skys Farm

9 04 2017

(April 9, 2017)

The Urban Farmer

Another Visit to Blue Skys Farm

Greens growing in one of Blue Skys high tunnels

Christina, in front of the new high tunnel

“If every person were to volunteer at a small-scale farm just once in their life, they would never complain about the price of food again.” This candid comment was made by one of the most passionate farmers I know, as we sat, deep in conversation, at a table in her farm’s solar-powered CSA building. In the fading light of dusk, as the sun set over one of her soon-to-be-planted fields, she actually forced me to mature in my understanding of small-scale, sustainable agriculture.

I was at Blue Skys Farm in Western Cranston, and I had spent upwards of three hours that afternoon talking to Christina Dedora, the farmer herself, about the trials, successes, and innate difficulties of being a small farmer. If you’ve read my column long enough, you may remember Christina; she and her farm were the subjects of the first edition of my “The Hand That Feeds You” column series, in late summer 2015.

It’s amazing, that Christina and I have already been friends for over two years. In that time, and especially since I wrote that first column about her farm, she has taught me so much about how small-scale, sustainable farming works.

She has been farming in RI now for 11 years, the last seven of them as a full time farmer. Her farm, Blue Skys, is part of the Urban Edge Farm agricultural collaborative, a collection of seven independent farms on land that is owned by the RI DEM and managed by the Southside Community Land Trust. One of the central themes of my last column about Christina’s farm was the underlying collaborative business model between the farmers, a fact which is still very true. Oftentimes, Christina’s table at the farmers market will feature produce grown by other farmers at Urban Edge.

At this point in the year, Blue Skys sells at the Pawtucket Wintertime Farmers Market, at Hope Artiste Village (1005 Main St, Pawtucket), which runs Saturdays 9 am to 1 pm, from November to May. During the summer, from May to October, they sell at the Pawtuxet Village Farmers Market. That is at Rhodes on the Pawtuxet (60 Rhodes Place, Cranston), and runs Saturdays 9 am to 12 pm. All of this information and a whole lot more can be found at the farm’s website, https://blueskysfarm.com/.

Christina describes her growing methods as chemical-free. She is not certified organic (I’ve written before about how inaccessible the organic certification can be for small farms), but she uses practices that well surpass the codified organic standards. All of the farms’ water comes almost exclusively from a small pond on the land. They grow their winter produce (along with very warm-season summer crops) in passively-heated, high-tunnel greenhouses, and meticulously manage their land’s soil fertility with organic amendments.

The layout of the farm hasn’t changed too much since that last time I wrote about it. But they are excitedly constructing their third high-tunnel, which was funded by a grant from the NRCS and USDA, and will enable them to hugely increase their production of greens during the winter and tomatoes during the summer. They also finished building their new drying room, which has allowed them to dry the many types of fragrant herbs that they grow on the farm. Christina told me that they have tripled the amount of herbal products being sold, most of which are both culinary and medicinal. There is a lavender-chamomile tea blend that caught my eye at the farmers market last week, which is a good example of the type of cool herbal products they grow, dry, and sell.

Right now, Blue Skys is in the end of their winter growing season. In my view, it’s pretty awesome that they have perfected their winter growing system, to continue growing and selling during the otherwise bleak months of the year. By using the passive-solar-heating properties of a high-tunnel, Christina and the crew are able to support a pretty substantial crop cool-season greens and roots. Right now, the tunnels are full of red and green spinach, chard, Mâche (a French salad green), lettuce, arugula, kale, mustard greens, sorrel, radishes, and even dill.

They carefully select crops that are able to survive mildly low temperatures, but which will flourish in the high-tunnels during winter conditions. Christina explained that she gets very little pest pressure during the winter, spare some cabbage worms and aphids. And because the soil in the high-tunnels doesn’t get directly rained on, sodium salts can accumulate in the soil and cause problems for the crops. For that reason, she amends with gypsum and the same organic fertilizers she uses elsewhere on the farm.

As I write this, the crew is busy seeding their summer crops in two massive greenhouses on the farm. Christina explained that their summer crop selection is pretty steady at this point, and includes beets, carrots, eggplants, cucumbers, cabbages, tomatoes, pole beans, potatoes (specifically, a nice purple-fleshed variety), along with many different types of flowers and herbs, all in many varieties.

This brings us to one of the main reasons I wanted to write this column: Blue Skys Farm’s CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) program. The way this program works is that the consumer pays for a “share” early in the season and then gets a box of vegetables (or other type of share) each week for a predetermined span of time. This system puts capital in the farmer’s hands early in the season, when it is needed most, and in return, the consumer gets 10-15% more produce for their money.

Blue Skys offers a full share (for 3-4 people) and a half share (for 1-2 people) of their vegetables, which span 20 weeks and work out to $40 per week for the full share, and $20 per week for the half share. They also offer herbal tea and flowers in their own CSA structures. In addition, eggs from Pak Express Farm and fruit from Barden Orchard can be bought as CSA shares. The program runs from June 9 through October 20, and the shares can be picked up either at the farm in Cranston, or at the Pawtuxet Village Farmers Market. All of this information is available at https://blueskysfarm.com/csa/, and you can also sign up right on that page.

Christina described that there are greens and lettuce in the box pretty much every week, and otherwise, it is filled with crops that are in season at the time (i.e. tomatoes and cucumbers starting in July). Certain crops are constant, while others are only available some weeks or at certain times of the summer, and she expects that there will usually be five to six different types of vegetable in the box in any given week. I already signed up for a share, and I urge you to as well!

Unlike the last time I toured the farm, when I viewed it through the rose-colored glasses of the pastoral idyll, our discussion was much deeper and more serious last week. Christina described some of the difficulties of being a small farmer: the crop losses, the food politics, the stagnation in the growth of the local customer base, and the complexity inherent in simultaneously growing food and also running a food distribution business. Christina works long days, often seven days a week; and in her words, and the words of every farmer whom I have talked to or whose work I have read, she isn’t going to get rich doing this.

And that’s what I meant earlier, when I said that my long conversation with her forced me to mature in my understanding of small-scale agriculture. While it’s been a long time since I legitimately thought of agriculture as peaceful, serene, and easy, I still do fall into the trap (and I’m sure you see it in many of my columns) of idealizing the life of a small farmer.

It definitely isn’t the pastoral idyll; it isn’t a series of lazy summer days, sitting out in a field, shucking peas with grandma. That lifestyle might have been common at some time in history, and may be achievable again, if we are willing to place a higher value on sustainable agricultural production than we currently do. But it doesn’t describe agriculture today.

Blue Skys farm, like many other small farms, is in no small part a labor of love. It is very hard work, and it is Christina’s livelihood. But it’s more than that. Agriculture is also her vocation, her way of using her unique skills and knowledge and time to improve the world.

Near the end of our conversation, I asked Christina what she wished she could tell people about her farm, herself, and local agriculture. Rather than any sort of marketing plug for Blue Skys, she had one simple request: “I want the world to eat more vegetables.” She believes that everyone would benefit by shopping at the farmers market, having access to fresh, seasonal, local produce every week. She wants people to eat more fresh vegetables and less processed food, and to appreciate the love that farmers put into their craft. She has high hopes for the future of small-scale, sustainable agriculture in Rhode Island and the rest of the world, and she’s doing her part to bring us there.

I concur. Being a regular at Rhode Island’s local farmers markets, eating produce grown in the local foodshed and making it a big part of my diet, has changed me. I urge you to sign up for Blue Skys’ CSA program and visit them at the farmers market. You can find more information about all of this at http://www.farmfreshri.org/ and https://blueskysfarm.com/.

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call, Column 58 – A Long Winter’s Nap: Putting the Urban Farm to Bed for the Year

13 11 2016

(October 23, 2016)

The Urban Farmer

A Long Winter’s Nap: Putting the Urban Farm to Bed for the Year

 Despite the unseasonable heat we’ve enjoyed this week, the fall is chugging steadily along. Soon enough, New England will be plunged into winter. The Farmers’ Almanac said it’ll be an exceptionally cold, snowy one this year, which is good reason for we urban farmers to focus well on preparing our homesteads for the cold and snow. Today, we’ll talk about a couple of important tasks that need to get done before that fateful time when the ground freezes, based on my own experiences.

The Vegetable Garden

            I hope you’ve had a good year in the garden, and that the last of your summer crops, as well as the glut of your fall ones, are maturing and ready to harvest. You’ll want to keep close watch of the weather, or at least put a weather alert app on your phone. Most annual crops, especially the remnants of the summer garden, need to be harvested before we get hit with a killing-frost. This usually happens in mid-to-late October, but we’ve been lucky so far (or unlucky, as the delayed onset of cold weather is an indicator of accelerating climate change). I usually wait it out as long as I can, and when the freezing temperatures seem imminent, I’ll do a “big harvest”, collecting everything edible and on-its-way to being edible (i.e. green tomatoes) in the garden, to be eaten, processed, or allowed to ripen. After that, it’s best to pull up all of the spent annuals to prevent overwintering diseases and pests, and either plant for the fall/winter or protect the soil.

It’s too late to plant most fall crops (I wrote a great column last August, about how to do just that!), but there are a few things you’ll want to plant and otherwise do for the health of your soil.

First off, plant garlic! This should go in sometime in the coming couple of weeks. I think I’ll plant my large selection of organic garlic this weekend, to allow it a bit of mild weather to establish itself.

Now is also a great time to plant cover crops, which are various cold season grasses, legumes, and the like that serve as a living mulch over the winter, and can be tilled into the soil for a fertility boost in the spring. As you pull up your spent vegetable plants, you should do some combination of the following, or ideally all of them: plant cover crops; apply manure, so it has the winter to compost and sterilize (or, at minimum, get some at leave it in a pile to compost); apply compost; and mulch the soil with anything from straw to grass to the coming onslaught of leaves (shredded, for faster breakdown).

Perennial Fruits

            In New England, now is actually a pretty good time to plant perennial fruit trees, bushes, and groundcovers. If they’re dormant when they ship from the nursery, they will not really start growing until next spring; if they aren’t, or you get them from a local nursery, they will grow a little and then go dormant as the weather cools. I tend to prefer to plant new perennials in spring, but I know of plenty of people who have made successful fall plantings.

For perennial fruits that are already established, late-October/early-November is when they need to be pruned. Grape vines should be cut down to a few feet above the ground; bramble canes that fruited for the first time this year or last year (depending on the specific cultivar) can be cut to the ground; and other fruit trees and bushes should be pruned carefully, to allow airflow between branches and facilitate whatever harvesting/plant-training program you have in mind.

New plantings and old should be mulched again in the fall, to keep the soil relatively warm and foster biological activity. For more detail on any particular crop, consult a reliable online source, or a homesteading book like John Seymour’s The New Self-Sufficient Gardener.

Irrigation System

            Rain barrels are sort of a sticky subject at this point in the year. You don’t want to empty them prematurely and waste the water. However, you have to make sure they are completely empty before the temperatures dip below freezing for an extended time, to prevent them from freezing solid and getting damaged. They should be cleaned at this point in the year, and either put away or otherwise cut off from your downspout (so they don’t fill up again).

Drip irrigation is a little bit of a different story. This is my first year with the system, so I’m writing based on my research rather than personal experience. What I have read has said the system can be left installed during winter. But you definitely want to flush all of the water out, disconnect it from the spigot, and open as many valves and holes as possible (similar to the way normal hoses are winterized). Even if the plastic is capable of withstanding the cold temperatures, the last thing you want is for water to freeze within it and breaking the tube. Refer back to the literature included with your system.

Chickens

            Chickens don’t need to be winterized per se: they thrive happily down to -20°F. But their water is a different story. You need to find a way to prevent it from freezing. I’ve seen designs for passive water heaters, which use a combination of black materials (which absorb light and reemit it as heat) and the greenhouse effect (where a clear container traps sunlight as heat) to keep water above freezing and therefore potable.

I aspire to use something like that one day. But for right now, I use a run-of-the-mill heated waterer. It’s like any chicken watering fount, but has a plug and a heating element built into the base, which turns on when the temperature of the water drops close to freezing. It’s also possible to build one by resting a standard plastic waterer on a heating dog bowl.

Otherwise, just know that your chickens are in for a boring couple of months. There won’t be much garden waste, bugs, grass, and the like for them to enjoy, so you’ll have to give them something to do to prevent cabin fever – like hanging heads of cabbage for them to jump and peck, or just bringing them new and interesting treats (they seemed to really enjoy the acid whey from my homemade Greek yogurt, today). On a more practical note, you also want to make sure to have a good supply of your bedding(s) of choice, as well as their feed. Winter isn’t the best time to run out of these.

Other

            If you have a vermiculture system, it’s best to bring it inside (a basement or unused room), or at least the garage during the winter. The worms don’t do well in the freezing temperatures. If they must stay outside, find the warmest place you can – like within the henhouse, which is naturally kept a little warmer, by the birds.

Finally, you generally want to make sure that the urban farm is clean as we enter the winter months. This is one I have struggled with in recent years, mostly because this time of the fall was usually when school would really pick up.

Make sure all of your tools are clean, sorted, and put somewhere that will be easily accessible come spring. Collect all seed-starting trays, plastic cells/pots, plant markers, and anything else that can get lost or damaged in the snow, clean them off, and bring them inside! I can’t tell you how many black plastic trays I’ve lost because of this type of neglect.

Finally, make sure you’re on the mailing lists of your favorite seed companies. December will be here before you know it, and you know what that means: time to start it all again!

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call, Column 48 – Water-Wise Gardening

6 06 2016

(June 5, 2016)

The Urban Farmer

Water-Wise Gardening

 

Despite the heavy rain in the forecast for today, I’m guessing that you’ve also noticed the sudden onset of warm, dry weather over the past few weeks. Though our southern New England climate has pretty much always been characterized by alternating stretches of warm, dry weather and cool, wet weather, the extremeness of this effect is being intensified by climate change. In the spirit of being well-adapted to the changing climate, and more generally with the important goal of resource conservation that underlies urban farming, today’s column is about a few key gardening practices and system-level approaches that aim to make the best possible use of water, both that which falls from the sky and that which is delivered through the faucet.

The name of the game is water-wise gardening. That begins with applying the best water you can as time-efficiently as you can, and ends with making sure that water stays where you put it for as long as possible. There are two classifications of methods and systems that we will discuss: gardening techniques that require little additional time or money, and more elaborate systems, that need some additional planning, but have a more pronounced benefit.

Let’s start with the so-called “low-hanging fruit”, simple gardening practices that have a pretty significant baseline effect with little overhead time or money:

 

  • Mulching. This is the single easiest and most effective water-wise gardening technique. By covering the soil around your plants with an inch or two of any fine organic material – grass clippings, shredded leaves, wood mulch, shredded newspaper, straw/hay, or even partially-broken-down compost, you can drastically slow down the rate at which the water evaporates. On a hot day, any un-mulched soil in my garden dries out within maybe 12 hours of watering or rainfall; mulched soil stays wet for at least a few days under the same conditions. Mulch also breaks down slowly into compost, which brings us to the next method.
  • Building organic matter content. Incorporating finished compost, manure, leaf mould, decomposed mulch, and other organic matter into your soil also drastically increases its water storage capacity with little effort. Organic matter contains a high level of what’s called “humus”, a not-well-understood organic chemical cocktail that is essentially the glue that holds our planet’s biosphere together. Among its many features, a high humus content is what gives soil its ability to store many times its own weight in water, thereby providing the plants’ roots with much longer-term access to water without more frequent watering.
  • Watering methods. Some measure of your water usage efficiency is the result of how and when you water the soil. By watering later in the evening or early in the morning, when the sun is not strong and the temperature is at the day’s lowest, the water will be able to percolate into the soil before being evaporated.
    In addition, much of the water that leaves the nozzle of the hose doesn’t make it to the soil, because it evaporates in mid-air. Following the above schedule helps to alleviate this, as does watering with the hose output as close as possible to the surface of the soil (that is, choosing those garden shower wands over sprinklers).
  • Layout of plants. There is a school of agricultural thought called permaculture, which theorizes that our agriculture performs best when it mimics the behaviors of natural ecosystems. Taking cues from this, you can maximize the soil’s moisture retention by being deliberate with the layout of plants in your urban farm. Specifically, by planting your main crops closer together than generally recommended, they will shield the ground from sunlight and slow water evaporation; a similar effect is produced by planting a “groundcover” of low-growing plants (i.e. strawberries, leafy greens, some smaller leafy root vegetables) amongst taller plants (like tomatoes), and has the added benefit of producing an additional crop from otherwise unused space. (Permaculture is a nuanced and very interesting set of theories, which warrants a few columns of its own sometime in the near future.)

 

Next, let’s talk about some not-very-costly systems that require a bit more planning, but have a more pronounced effect on your water usage:

 

  • Rain barrels. These are a great, self-sufficient way to meet your urban farm’s water needs, providing non-chlorinated, non-fluoridated water to your plants and animals while conserving our rapidly dwindling freshwater supply. Essentially, a rain barrel is any container (the bigger the better!) that is placed beneath a gutter downspout in order to catch and store rainwater. This water can then be used to irrigate your garden (especially with a drip irrigation system – more on this below). I would urge you to look at the much more in-depth column about building an urban rainwater catchment system that I wrote last June (you can find it here: http://tinyurl.com/zz9vh5y).
  • Drip irrigation. This is another planning-intensive but relatively inexpensive system to maximize your water usage efficiency. I am just beginning to install my own drip irrigation system in my garden, so I’ll tell you what I know so far. It is essentially a network of ½” and ¼” tubes, laid along the soil (hopefully on top of a nice layer of mulch). Water runs through the tubes and drips out of either small holes pre-drilled every few inches, or through specialized, fixed-flow-rate drippers that you install where you want. This network is initially connected back up to either a rain barrel or the spigot, first being filtered (to remove particles), pressure regulated (so that flow rates are predictable), and backflow regulated (which prevents a water cutoff from sucking the water back up into the spigot) by special attachments. For my large garden, I expect to spend $100 to $150 when all is said and done, and this system will save me 4 or 5 hours per week for years to come.
    This type of irrigation is beneficial because it delivers water directly to 1) the soil, preventing a lot of evaporation, and 2) the desired plants, reducing weed growth that results from broad watering. It lowers your water usage significantly, and (as mentioned above) does not require you to invest time every day or two watering, so is a huge time-saver!

Feel free to email me with any questions you have about how you might get started with any of the techniques or systems I’ve discussed above, or for more detail about starting a drip irrigation or rainwater catchment system.

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call, Column 44 – “For Your Health, the Environment, and the Animals”

10 04 2016

(April 10, 2016)

The Urban Farmer

“For Your Health, the Environment, and the Animals”

            Today, we’re going to discuss a topic that I’ve given a lot of thought to in the past year: the nutritional, ecological, and ethical arguments in favor of eating animals.

First, here’s a little background. As some of you know, or may have guessed, I follow a dietary framework called the Paleo Diet, which enthusiastically involves moderate levels of animal consumption. I’ll talk about it more in the future, but needless to say, this has ironically led me to the dark corners of the internet, where the arguments against any and all consumption of animal products are given a pretty elevated platform.

To start, I have the utmost respect for the pure form of ethical vegetarianism and veganism, which is based on an objection to factory farmed animal products. A distinction has to be made between advocates of “animal welfare” – the goal of producing the highest quality of life for our animals – and those of “animal rights” – extending human rights (to life, freedom, etc) to animals, a goal that is inherently hostile to any form of animal agriculture. I have friends and family in the first group, who abstain from animal products as a hugely effective way to protest factory farming.

Not only am I not writing this to question their beliefs, but it is actually more in line with their central goal than opposed. Rather, it’s written in response to those perpetuating the ridiculous and offensively-named “animal rights abolitionism” – the use of government regulation to stop other people from utilizing animals for any purpose, including as pets – and somehow tying it to the largely unscientific environmental and human health arguments against animal consumption.

I don’t care that they believe this – that’s their own prerogative. But this “Triumvirate” of arguments is presented to the public as self-evident fact, and inflammatory opinion-piece films are made to disseminate it. Their false dogma is squarely wrong, but has somehow become the official position of polite society. And I want to do my part to combat that.

For Human Health

            Everyone agrees that non-starchy vegetables and lower-sugar fruits should make up a significant part of our daily calories. Specific numbers don’t matter much, but together with healthy plant fats, that leaves maybe 40 or 50% of caloric needs unaccounted for. We have to get that from some mix of animal foods (meat, milk, eggs) and plant foods (grains and legumes). The Triumvirate would have you believe that this should come mostly from the nutrient-poor sugars in grains and legumes (and low-fat dairy). The best science increasingly says the opposite.

In case you haven’t heard, dietary cholesterol has been exonerated as a cause for heart disease. Cholesterol is a necessary nutrient for brain function, hormone production, and the creation of new cells, which is why our livers synthesize so much of it. But, because we are well-adapted to eating animals, they happily produce less when it can be obtained from our diet; this means that consumption of cholesterol generally has no effect on blood cholesterol levels.

It isn’t even cholesterol that clogs arteries, but damaged lipoproteins (“oxidized LDL cholesterol”) which actually truck cholesterol around our bodies to where it is needed. The net effect of animal fats is to slightly raise LDL levels but actually protect them from becoming damaged/oxidized, while the net effect of concentrated sugars and starches is to accelerate the damage! Together, the nutrient-shaming of cholesterol and saturated fat are the basis upon which the Triumvirate argues against animal consumption; thankfully, that foundation has been destroyed by actual science, and the recommendations are slowly changing.

What’s more, we are “obligate omnivores” – there are nutrients that our bodies require in order to function properly, whose only or most practical source is plants (for some of them), and animals (for others). The required nutrients from animal products include Vitamins B12, K2, D, and preformed A, heme iron, zinc, and other minerals, appropriate forms of omega 3 fats, and complete protein (read more about this on The Paleo Mom’s site, http://tinyurl.com/hevowep).

Indeed, our species has eaten significant amounts of animal products for at least 2.6 million years (about 50% of calories prior to the dawn of agriculture), and have never suffered chronic diseases like the past five decades, which has been coupled with a decrease in overall consumption. As I’ve argued extensively in the recent past, the scientific basis of anti-meat nutritional recommendations is so shaky, it isn’t worth denying our own biology. Animal products are not only not bad for us, but necessary for human health.

Strike one.

For the Environment

            My analysis of this shouldn’t surprise you. Industrial animal agriculture is bad for the environment. But so is industrial plant agriculture. In fact, this is so because animal agriculture unnecessarily relies on resource-intensive monocultures of grains and legumes.

Industrial agriculture is bad for the environment. It uses a lot of fresh water, consumes a lot of energy, releases a lot of greenhouse gases, and causes a lot of localized pollution. But this isn’t inherent to animal agriculture, or plant agriculture for that matter. And that is where the advocacy community loses some of us holistic, systems-minded folks.

People need to eat. And there are a lot of us. Therefore, we must do agriculture. But we also need a properly-functioning planet to live on. So a major challenge of the 21st century is to find ways to do agriculture well, that are also good for the planet. Enter: Regenerative Agriculture.

Without going into too much detail, independent scientists and agriculturalists have constructed a toolbox of agricultural methods, collectively called “Regenerative Agriculture”, which rival the efficiencies of industrial agriculture but do so in ways that actually help the environment. Taking cues from nature – which is full of pastures, forests, and animals, but curiously not grain monocultures – pioneers like Allan Savory, Bill Mollison, David Holmgren, and many ambitious farmers have formulated three important agricultural practices: non-intensive plant agriculture and permaculture (topics for future discussion), and today’s highlight, rotationally-grazed livestock.

Grass-eating animals (ruminants) are essential for the health of the environment. And by feeding them only grass, and grazing them on pastures in patterns that mimic those of wild ruminants, we can create a system that requires very little water, produces no pollution and a gain in soil fertility, and actually has a net effect of pulling greenhouse gases out of the air! Industrial agriculture is a problem, but animal agriculture done this way is the solution.

Strike two.

And for the Animals

            Considering that humans are obligate omnivores (since science generally shouldn’t be discarded in favor of ideology), we have three options to supply those required foods: hunting/fishing, animal agriculture, and artificial meat production.

It is resource intensive to grow meat in a laboratory and, like most reductive science, likely wouldn’t provide a suitable substitute for meat. Also, it is unlikely to be scalable to the population’s demand for meat.

Hunting and fishing is a good solution, but not a complete one. At the current human population, supplying all of our animal product needs from natural populations would devastate them. There are maximum sustainable harvest rates that we should absolutely strive for in order to supply some of the demand, but to surpass them is to take that same right away from the next generation, and 10 and 100 generations down the line.

That leaves animal agriculture. I would argue, since we must raise animals for food instead of hunting them in the wild, we must make their lives better and longer than those of their wild cousins. Guess what? The holistic system I described earlier does just that. This is yet another reason to buy grass-fed, pasture-raised animal products, mostly from large grazing herbivores (red meat).

Even if we’re willing to ignore the fact that we are biological omnivores, the system of ethics by which we decide whether to eat animals is pretty much subjective. The most common framework is the “Least Harm Principal”, which posits that our dietary choices should be made in order to cause the least harm/suffering/discomfort to creatures with brains. The common argument is then: “so we shouldn’t kill animals for food when we can just eat grains and legumes”. But here’s the interesting thing: mechanical harvesting of grains and legumes, which is necessary at current consumption levels, results in the bloody, painful deaths of a significant number of animals living in the grain fields. Estimates actually have it at 25 times as many animal deaths per gram of protein produced in grain and legume agriculture, than in pasture-based ruminant agriculture (http://tinyurl.com/nr5f6m2), so the least harm principal indicates the latter as the best calorie choice in order to reduce animal suffering (http://tinyurl.com/hmqa6pj).

But my ethical approach to agriculture is a little different. It is well-documented that all creatures – plants, animals, fungi, and microbes – suffer in their own way, and limiting our scope of empathy only to those who suffer similarly to us is indefensible. For that reason, I believe in a more nuanced, large-scale method to reduce suffering – using the extensiveness of our agriculture to maximize the biomass production on the surface of the earth, producing the largest amount of healthy, thriving, biodiverse life possible, for the longest time possible. And what’s the best way to do that? Regenerative agriculture, including rotationally-grazed animals.

Strike three, case closed.

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call, Column 42 – The Fruits of Your Labor: Growing Raspberries and Blackberries

28 03 2016

(March 13, 2016)

The Urban Farmer

The Fruits of Your Labor: Growing Raspberries and Blackberries

Despite having arrived a little early, I can’t say I mind the past week’s warm, sunny weather. The crocuses are blooming, the robins are scurrying around my yard, and I actually think I see the grass starting to grow. Spring is on its way, and that means it’s time to plant perennial fruits and vegetables!

Today, I want to take a look at bramble fruits, and give you a quick how-to on planting, growing, and using these amazing crops.

“Bramble fruits” is a wide classification of species belonging to the plant genus Rubus. They are tall-stemmed, often thorny, bush-like perennials that spread like wildfire and fruit abundantly. Depending on where you are in the world, this family of crops includes blackberries and (red, purple/black, and yellow) raspberries, but also their many hybrids and cultivars – loganberries, boysenberries, tayberries, etc. Today, I’ll focus specifically on blackberries and raspberries, because these are where I have the most experience – and they have essentially the same growing requirements.

These fruits are incredibly nutritious – they are high in Vitamin C, and one of the best sources of dietary fiber you can eat (if you want more information about this, check out my latest blog post, about various fruits and vegetables and their fiber content).

They also make great crops – they are easy to grow, require little care other than occasional watering, and yield large amounts of fruit at an early age, and for many years (more on this later). There are two distinct types of raspberries – summer-bearing, which bear one large crop in the mid-summer, and ever-bearing which bear two smaller crops in the summer and the fall. With all this said, let’s begin.
When and where to get your brambles: The best time to plant brambles is either in the early spring – mid-to-late March, giving the plant the spring, summer, and fall to put on growth – or in the fall – where it will stay dormant until the next spring. I’ve always had good luck with spring plantings of perennial fruits, and I would recommend going this path if only to prevent possible winter losses of tender, fragile young plants. That means you’ll want to have the plants within the next few weeks – because, if you order them from an online nursery, they will be shipped dormant and you’ll need them to break dormancy naturally, in the ground, as the soil and air temperatures warm.

Spring is the time of year when you’ll be able to find brambles and other fruit plants for sale in stores in our area. The best place to get fruit plants is in dedicated garden centers – places like Cluck Urban Farm Supply in Providence. If you’re looking for specific plants like raspberries and blackberries, it’s always best to call ahead to make sure they have them in stock.

Online nurseries are a good route to go if you want a broad selection of varieties – thorn-less blackberries, Latham raspberries, and those other hybrid berries I mentioned earlier. I’ve always had good luck ordering from Gurneys Seed and Nursery Company, and most of the bramble fruits I have growing in my garden were originally from there.

Raspberry and blackberry canes are also available from hardware stores in the spring. You should be careful with these, because I’ve read that they sometimes treat the plants with neonicotinoid compounds – artificial pesticides that have been found to be very damaging to bee populations. It’s worth asking before buying plants from them.

How to plant your brambles: When you buy raspberry and blackberry plants, either online or from a local nursery, they will come with instructions about the recommended planting depth, spacing, and location. But generally speaking, you’ll want to incorporate some compost into the planting hole a few weeks before planting, and space them around 3-5 feet apart.

As with most fruiting plants, their yield will be highest in a site with southern (full sun) exposure. But I have my berries planted on a northeast-facing wall (it was the most convenient area when I planted them) and they still yield pretty heavily. This is likely because bramble fruits evolved as undergrowth to thick forests, and so can do moderately well on lower amounts of sun.

Like most other plants, a few inches of mulch around your brambles ensures that the soil stays moist and fertile, and protects them from some soil-borne diseases and pests. You’ll want to water them once or twice a week, but I have found that they do pretty well on rainfall alone (assuming it is adequate). Like many perennials, they have both deep and sprawling roots, which allow them to pull up water (and nutrients) from further down in the soil.

You should create some sort of trellising or other support system for the berries. Because the canes grow very tall (I’ve seen some of my blackberry canes reach almost 15 feet), you should tie them up to a growing support to 1) increase air-circulation and prevent disease, 2) keep them from covering the surrounding area, and 3) make harvesting easier. I have three plants (two raspberries and one blackberry) planted along a wall of my house, separated by around 7 feet. We put four posts – cedar, driven a foot into the ground and extending about 8 feet up – between the plants and on the left and right ends. We tied metal wire horizontally along these posts, and tie the berry canes to them as they grow.

One special consideration to take is that bramble fruits should be pruned for best growth. Pruning is when you cut off this or last year’s growth, sometime in the fall or winter, to encourage better growth the following year and increase air circulation (to prevent disease). Each year (sometime between late fall and early spring), you should cut down any canes that have dried out, and are no longer fruiting. For summer-bearing varieties, these are a few years old (because they grow canes one year and fruit on them the next). For ever-bearing varieties, these are the canes that have grown and fruited in the last year.

Timeline for yielding fruit: In my experience, the plants may fruit very lightly the first year, but don’t expect much. If you water them and keep them healthy in the first year, they will take off the second year with a pretty significant harvest; they will probably reach maximum yield in the third year, and continue for a decade or more.

From my three plants, I harvest probably 4-6 gallons of fruit per year. That number could go up significantly if they had better sun exposure, and probably if I watered them a little more.

Why I love bramble fruits: These berries were my first real foray into fruit-growing, and I’m glad they were. They require very little maintenance, and yield fruit in less than two years, which cannot be said about most tree fruits.

Because they are delicate and hard to transport fresh, bramble fruits do cost quite a bit to buy, which makes it that much sweeter (pun intended) to get a few gallons of them, per year, from a $5 plant.

From an ancestral-diet-framework, they are probably the best fruit. Small, sour, wild berries (from which bramble fruits aren’t too far removed) were the primary source of dietary carbohydrates throughout human evolution, and this is reflected by the unbelievable levels of dietary fiber and phytonutrients found in them. Most of our fruit consumption should come from fruits like these.

They are delicious to eat fresh over the late spring and summer, and can be stored in the freezer for a year or more, to be eaten in the off season. A small investment now will pay dividends in the future – so plant some bramble berries, and enjoy the fruits of your labor!

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call (also in areas where The Pawtucket Times is available). The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.





The Call and Times, Column 22 – Water, Water, Everywhere: Urban Rainwater Harvesting

7 08 2015

(June 7th, 2015)

The Urban Farmer

Water, Water, Everywhere: Urban Rainwater Harvesting

Remember that three-day stretch of nearly constant rainfall early last week? I have to admit, for every raindrop that hit my roof, I died a little inside. You see, there’s this one special project (well, there are hundreds, but I’m going to focus right now) that I’ve been meaning to do for years but have never gotten around to, which has become one of my latest obsessions: rainwater harvesting.

Otherwise known as rainwater catchment, this is exactly what it sounds like. By installing a waterproof container at the bottom of a downspout gutter, the rainwater that falls on that portion of your roof can be collected and stored for future use.

Later on, I will describe a simple catchment system (the basic plan that I will be using). But before we get into the practical, let’s talk theory: why exactly would I want to go to the trouble of installing rainwater catchment on my house?

Being a coastal state in the Northern Atlantic, Rhode Island is blessed with relatively rainy summers (though someone might want to remind the climate about that this year). With that said, rainfall often comes in short bursts of thunderstorms, while our farms, gardens, livestock, and people would probably be better off with a little water every day rather than a biblical flood twice a month. The basic motivation for rainwater collection is the same as many other homesteading projects – if you save it during times of plenty, you’ll have it during times of little.

For every inch of rainfall, a 100 square foot area of roof (the size of a small bedroom) passes 62 gallons of rainwater – more than you can shake an umbrella at. Taking the average roof area in our region to be about 1000 square feet (U.S. Census Bureau), and Rhode Island rainfall to be 3 to 4 inches per month, a total of nearly 20,000 gallons of rainwater falls onto the average roof in the 9 non-winter months every year! Because of how easy it is to harvest, those 20,000 gallons ($100, at our rates) of clean, free rainwater are essentially wasted in most homes in the country, my own included.

The rule of thumb is that vegetable gardens require 1-2 inches of water per week in the summer, including rainfall. It’s entirely possible that we could get this much rain, but there’s a catch: a garden does much better with frequent watering, rather than what would otherwise be a cycle of flood-drought conditions. By collecting and storing rainwater when it is abundant, it can be used to irrigation the vegetable garden during periods of little or no rain.

Being a frugal, environmentally-conscious, thinking-in-cycles, conservationist engineer, these numbers are too appealing to pass up. I will be constructing a simple rainwater catchment system in the next few weeks, and I’m writing this column to hopefully motivate you to do the same.

With that, the central question is: what do I need to build a minimalist rainwater catchment system? While I can’t give a complete tutorial here, I will address the different components (there really aren’t that many) of a rainwater collection system. The internet is full of step-by-step instructions about how to build these fixtures for very little money, and I would recommend http://www.instructables.com/ as a good place to start.

The first step in rainwater collection is the downspout. Most homes already have these, but they often have to be adapted (and probably shortened) so the water can run into your collection container rather than onto the ground. In addition, I’ve encountered many urban farms in my research that employ what is called a “first flush system”. This is essentially a clever piping system that discards the first few gallons of each rainfall. This is desirable, because asphalt roofing tiles that were hot prior to the rain can leach small amounts of heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the first bit of rainfall. By stopping the first few gallons from going into the rain barrel, you prevent those chemicals from ending up in your garden. What’s more, it helps to remove most bird droppings.

The next step is the storage tank, commonly called a cistern or a rain barrel. This can be as big or as small as you like. Pre-assembled rain barrels or assemble-it-yourself kits of 50-100 gallons are available for sale online and from many garden stores for around $100. In my opinion, it is easier and less expensive to build one yourself.

A simple, sturdy trash can works just as well, and makes the whole enterprise much more cost effective. It must have a tight-fitting lid, to prevent animals and insects (mosquitoes) from getting in. To this, you basically have to add a screened hole in the lid for the water to enter, and a watertight spigot near the bottom, to which you can attach a hose, for water to exit. An overflow system is also a nice addition: essentially you make another hole on the side of the barrel, near the top, so that excess rainwater can feed elsewhere (another rain barrel, perhaps?) once the primary container is full. Again, I direct you to one of many DIY websites for specific instructions to suit your individual budget and needs.

Finally, there is the (optional) distribution system. The water can simply be taken as-is from the spigot – a watering can or bucket is all you need to disburse it to those organisms in need of it most. A hose can also be attached, allowing you to water manually.

In my opinion, the state-of-the-art distribution system is drip irrigation. By laying out special (or homemade) irrigation piping throughout your garden, you can deliver water directly to the roots of your plants, minimizing waste and reducing weed growth. This is my preferred system, and I will be building one sometime in the near future.

One other thing to consider: the higher the rain barrel is raised up, the more water pressure (and higher flow rate) you will have in the distribution system. This doesn’t matter as much if you’re using automatic or unmanned drip irrigation, but if you’re watering by hand, a higher flow rate means less time spent watering. Something as simple as inexpensive, cement cinder blocks can do the job of adding a few feet to the height of the container.

Rhode Island house bill RI HB 7070 of 2012 set up a 10% tax credit for the cost of installation of residential and commercial rainwater catchment systems. Rather than illegalize rainwater collection, as has been done in certain other states, Rhode Island is actually encouraging its residents to collect rainwater. And they do so for good reason.

It is healthier for your plants, healthier for your animals, and healthier for the environment. And while I would not recommend drinking it yourself (insect larvae, toxic compounds, algae and other microorganisms will undoubtedly be present in the water), collected rainwater serves as an important buffer against short rain-free periods, more serious droughts, and problems with the municipal water supply. Remember, my friends: resilience is the product of practical forethought.

My column appears every other Sunday in The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times. The above article is the property of The Woonsocket Call and The Pawtucket Times, and is reprinted here with permission from these publications. These are excellent newspapers, covering important local news topics with voices out of our own communities, and skillfully addressing statewide and national news. Click these links to subscribe to The Woonsocket Call or to The Pawtucket Times. To subscribe to the online editions, click here for The Call and here for The Times. They can also be found on Twitter, @WoonsocketCall and @Pawtuckettimes.